This curious arm with its two-groove bore and belted bullet remained in the hands of Regulars, Militia and Native troops for almost half a century.

Pattern 1838 Musket

The "Musket, Rank and File for Foot Guards", the first percussion musket to be issued in quantity to British soldiers.

Pattern 1841 Carbine

The Pattern 1841 Royal Sappers & Miners, &/or Royal Artillery Carbine


The family of British Service Rifles and Carbines introduced during the 1850’s and 1860’s in 0.577 calibre marked the culmination of the soldiers’ muzzle loading firearm.
  • The Enfield Rifle - A visit to the Ordnance Factory, Enfield [1859]
  • The Enfield Rifle - On the manufacture of the muzzle loading Enfield rifle [1860]
  • War Department Notes - Samples of notes written by G.C. Holden in the mid 1860s covering muzzle stopper, snap cap, nipple wrench and the barrel.
  • P'53 Enfield Production Markings - A synopsis of Enfield production markings to help answer some common questions, with regards to identifying British government arms
  • Managing the Enfield - A short treatise for shooting the Enfield rifle today, covering the rifle, equipment, ammunition, shooting, sighting, cleaning and bedding.
  • Enfield Paper Cartridges - This article draws from Hawes' work on Rifle Ammunition (1859) and other contemporary sources. 


The breech loading conversion of the muzzle loading Enfield rifle.

Martini Arms

Martini arms in British service: Martini-Henry, Martini-Enfield, Martini-Metford.

Lee Magazine Rifles

The British Service Lee: Lee-Metford and Lee-Enfield rifles and carbines.
  • The Lee Magazine Rifle - An American view on the adoption of a small-bore - 0.303 inch calibre – modified Lee magazine rifle [1889]

Small Arms Trials

  • Lancaster Oval Bore - The "Army (Rifles)" report of 1863 commented favourably on the large bore Lancaster
  • The Soper Rifle - Sent for trial at Woolwich, the rifle and was rejected on the ground of "complication of breech arrangement." [1867]
  • Thomas Wilson his Patents, Arms and Ammunition - Researching the little known Victorian Engineer, Thomas Wilson and his rifle systems work conducted during the 1860’s and later.


Military Marksmanship

For the soldier to take advantage of the advances in firearms technology, so musketry instruction needed to evolve to meet changing military tactics and capabilities.
  • Life in a Crimea Rifle Pit - First hand account of life in a rifle pit during the Crimean War [1855]
  • Chalons - The Camp - A brief comparative overview of the arming and training of the French and British soldier [1856]
  • 'Pickets' versus Bullets - Musketry instruction evolving to follow small arms development [1859]
  • Indian Mutiny Long Shots - Comment on the effect of shooting a fouled muzzle loading Enfield rifle, and on the effectiveness of long range volley fire on artillery crews [1859]
  • Long-Range Rifle Fire - An overview of the development of the rifle in British military service from 1680 to 1885, and the impact on long-range shooting [1885]

Hythe School of Musketry

The School of Musketry was established at Hythe, in Kent, in 1853.